Which Type of Article Contains an Abstract, Methodology, Conclusion, and References

Which Type of Article Contains an Abstract, Methodology, Conclusion, and References

Academic and scientific articles often contain key components like an abstract, methodology, conclusion, and references. However, different types of articles may contain some or all of these elements depending on the purpose, audience, and requirements.


When reviewing an article, it can be helpful to understand what type it is and what elements it should contain. This allows you to better evaluate the completeness and credibility of the information presented. Some key components to look for include:


An abstract is a short summary of the key points of an article. It allows readers to quickly understand what the article is about and decide if they want to read the full text.

Abstracts are very common in:

Academic Journal Articles

Most peer reviewed academic journal articles contain an abstract. It summarizes the key details like the purpose, methods, results, and conclusions.

Review Articles

Review articles that synthesize previously published literature on a topic also have abstracts outlining the main points and conclusions.


The methodology explains how the research and analysis for the article was conducted. It allows readers to evaluate the reliability and validity of the results.

Methodology sections are common in:

Original Research Articles

Articles presenting new experimental findings will describe the methods used to collect and analyze the data.

Systematic Reviews

Systematic reviews that aggregate findings across many studies also describe the methodology used for locating, assessing, and synthesizing prior research.

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A conclusion sums up the main findings and implications of the article. Rather than just repeating results, it should explain the significance.

Conclusions are typical sections in:

Lab Reports

Student lab reports in science classes often end with a conclusion synthesizing the experiment results.

Original Research Articles

Conclusions are also standard parts of peer-reviewed academic papers, connecting the results to real world applications or prior theories.


The reference list cites sources used to research and write the article. It allows readers to verify claims and do further reading.

Detailed references support credibility in:

Literature Reviews

Literature reviews summarize, evaluate, and link to many existing studies, requiring references.

All Academic Articles

Referencing sources is a requirement for academic integrity across all peer-reviewed journal articles.

Types With All Components

So which types of articles contain an abstract, methodology, conclusion, and references?

Original Research Articles

The main type that brings together all these components is an original research article presenting new experimental findings in an academic journal. The standard format includes an:

  • Abstract: Summary of purpose, methods, results, conclusions
  • Methodology: Full specifics on data collection and analysis
  • Conclusion: Discusses implications and significance
  • References: Cites all sources referenced

This ensures these articles contain enough details for evaluation, replication, and further research.

Systematic or Scoping Reviews

Systematic or scoping reviews that deeply survey prior research also tend to have all the core components discussed:

  • Abstract: Overview of focus, search methods, main findings
  • Methodology: Details on literature search, screening, eligibility criteria
  • Conclusion: Summarizes state of research, implications, future directions
  • References: Full citations for included studies

Documenting the review protocol enhances reproducibility.

Variability Among Other Types

However, many other article types contain some but not all of these elements. For example:

  • Literature reviews: Typically have references but may lack methodology
  • Theoretical papers: May lack references or data methodology
  • Book reviews: Include conclusions but no research methods
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Additionally, shorter piece types like editorials, letters to the editor, or news articles would not contain extensive details like full methodology.

Understanding differences between document types helps determine what elements to expect while reading.

Key Takeaways

Checking if an article contains key components like an abstract, methodology, conclusion and references offers hints about its purpose and integrity:

  • Abstracts preview content
  • Methodologies describe research processes
  • Conclusions interpret significance
  • References link backing sources

Combined together, these sections appear most commonly in robust original research articles that present new experimental findings. This format with all elements provides transparency and bolsters validity.

Knowing what to expect in different document types assists with setting accurate expectations as a reader. However, variation can still occur depending on the specific guidelines of particular publications or journals.


In summary, original research articles and systematic reviews comprise the two main types of articles that reliably contain abstracts outlining the topic, detailed methodologies explaining the research process, concluding discussions, and references listing cited sources. This inclusive structure furnishes substantiating details to evaluate the material. However, many other varieties like theoretical treatises, commentaries, or popular science stories may only include a subset of these components. Identifying the specific type of article provides clues about conventions to anticipate before critically assessing the presentation and statements. Consult publishers or journal guidelines for any variations from typical formats. Understanding differences between categories allows customized interpretations based on purpose and depth. But both original research and literature reviews remain prime examples of comprehensive works containing all key sections abstract, methods, conclusion, and bibliography.

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Which type of article always includes an abstract?

Academic research articles and literature reviews essentially always contain abstracts summarizing key details. Abstracts are very standard in these works to overview topics and conclusions.

Do newspapers articles include methodology?

No, newspaper articles do not contain full methodologies. As more informal types of writing for general audiences, news reports focus on topics and implications rather than research methods.

What kind of articles omit the conclusion?

Some very short formats like editorials and letters may not include dedicated conclusion sections. But most academic works incorporate concluding remarks in some capacity to interpret significance.

Can an article be published with no references?

It is very rare for academic articles to be published without any references. Listing sources to substantiate claims and provide context aligns with standards for scholarly rigor and credibility across scientific literature.

What article type brings all elements together?

Original research articles in academic journals reliably contain full abstracts, methodologies, conclusions, and reference lists. This composite structure furnishes optimal background to assess the study and results.